Burmese Buddhist Imagery of the Early Bagan Period (1044-1113)

ျမန္မာသမိုင္းပညာရွင္ ၊ သုေတသနပညာရွင္ အမ်ားစုမွာ အားနည္းခ်က္တစ္ခုရွိပါတယ္။ ေတြ႕ရွိထားတဲ့ အခ်က္လက္ေတြကို ေဖာ္ျပရာမွာ ပံု ေတြကိုစနစ္တက် ေဖာ္ျပမႈအားနည္းတာပါ။ စာတမ္းကေန စာအုပ္ျဖစ္လာေသာ္လည္းဘဲ ဘာေၾကာင္႔မွန္းမသိ ဓာတ္ပံု ေဖာ္ျပမႈအားနည္းေနတုန္းပါ။

အခုေဖာ္ျပထားတဲ့ စာတမ္းက ခ်ားေလာ့ ကန္ျဒစ္ ဂါလိုေဝး ( Charlotte Kendrick Galloway ) ျပဳစုထားတဲ့ စာတမ္းျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ေဒါက္တာဘြဲ႕ ( Ph D ) အတြက္ ၂၀၀၆ ခုႏွစ္မွာ Australia National University ကိုတင္သြင္းတဲ့ စာတမ္းျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ " Burmese Buddhist Imagery of the Early Bagan Period ( 1044-1113 ) လို႕ဆိုထားေပမယ့္ အျခားဘာသာေတြျဖစ္တဲ့ ျဗဟၼာဏ ၊ ဟိႏၵဴ ဝါဒဆိုင္ရာ အေထာက္ထားေတြ႕ရွိခ်က္ေတြကိုပါ စီစစ္တင္ျပသြားပါတယ္။ ပုဂံ ဆိုေသာ္လည္းဘဲ သထံုမွာရွိတဲ့ မြန္လက္ရာေတြကို လက္လွမ္းမွီရာ စုစည္းေဖာ္ျပထားပါတယ္။

စာတမ္းလုပ္ေနတဲ့ ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ား၊ ပညာရွင္မ်ား အတြက္ အမ်ားၾကီး အေထာက္ကူျဖစ္မွာပါ။

စာတမ္းအက်ဥ္းခ်ဳပ္ႏွင့္ ေဒါင္းလုပ္ လုပ္ယူဖို႕ လင္႔ ေတြကို ေအာက္မွာေဖာ္ျပေပးလိုက္ပါတယ္။

TitleBurmese Buddhist Imagery of the Early Bagan Period (1044-1113)
AuthorGalloway, Charlotte Kendrick
InstitutionThe Australian National University
AbstractBuddhism is an integral part of Burmese culture. While Buddhism has been practiced in Burma for around 1500 years and evidence of the religion is found throughout the country, nothing surpasses the concentration of Buddhist monuments found at Bagan. Bagan represents not only the beginnings of a unified Burmese country, but also symbolises Burmese 'ownership' of Theravada Buddhism. ¶ While there is an abundance of artistic material throughout Burma, the study of Burmese Buddhist art by western scholars remains in it infancy due to historical events. In recent years, opportunities for further research have increased, and Bagan, as the region of Buddhism's principal flowering in Burma, is the starting point for the study of Burmese Buddhist art. To date, there has been no systematic review of the stylistic or iconographic characteristics of the Buddhist images of this period. This thesis proposes, for the first time, a chronological framework for sculptural depictions of the Buddha, and identifies the characteristics of Buddha images for each identified phase. The framework and features identified should provide a valuable resource for the dating of future discoveries of Buddhist sculpture at Bagan. ¶ As epigraphic material from this period is very scant, the reconstruction of Bagan's history has relied heavily to this point in time on non-contemporaneous accounts from Burma, and foreign chronicles. The usefulness of Bagan's visual material in broadening our understanding of the early Bagan period has been largely overlooked. This is addressed by relating the identified stylistic trends with purported historical events and it is demonstrated that, in the absence of other contemporaneous material, visual imagery is a valid and valuable resource for both supporting and refuting historical events. ¶ Buddhist imagery of Bagan widely regarded to represent the beginnings of 'pure' Theravada practice that King Anawrahta, the first Burman ruler, actively encouraged. This simplistic view has limited the potential of the imagery to provide a greater understanding of Buddhist practice at Bagan, and subsequently, the cross-cultural interactions that may have been occurring. In this light the narrative sculptural imagery of the period is interrogated against the principal Mahayana and Theravada texts relating to the life of Gotama Buddha. This review, along with the discussion regarding potential agencies for stylistic change, reveals that during the early Bagan period, Buddhism was an eclectic mix of both Theravada and Mahayana, which integrated with pre-existing spiritual traditions. Towards the end of the early Bagan period, trends were emerging which would lead to a distinctly Burmese form of Buddhist practice and visual expression.
Thesis 01front.pdf 31.7 Kb
02Volume1_Text.pdf 1842.8 Kb
03Volume2_ToFig127.pdf 3935.3 Kb
04Volume2_Figs128-238.pdf 3765.9 Kb


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